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### 11 Algebraic Varieties

In FinInG we provide some basic functionality for algebraic varieties defined over finite fields. The algebraic varieties in FinInG are defined by a list of multivariate polynomials over a finite field, and an ambient geometry. This ambient geometry is either a projective space, and then the algebraic variety is called a projective variety, or an affine geometry, and then the algebraic variety is called an affine variety. In this chapter we give a brief overview of the features of FinInG concerning these two types of algebraic varieties. The package FinInG also contains the Veronese varieties VeroneseVariety (11.7-1), the Segre varieties SegreVariety (11.6-1) and the Grassmann varieties GrassmannVariety (11.8-1); three classical projective varieties. These varieties have an associated geometry map (the VeroneseMap (11.7-3), SegreMap (11.6-3) and GrassmannMap (11.8-3)) and FinInG also provides some general functionality for these.

#### 11.1 Algebraic Varieties

An algebraic variety in FinInG is an algebraic variety in a projective space or affine space, defined by a list of polynomials over a finite field.

##### 11.1-1 AlgebraicVariety
 ‣ AlgebraicVariety( space, pring, pollist ) ( operation )
 ‣ AlgebraicVariety( space, pollist ) ( operation )

Returns: an algebraic variety

The argument space is an affine or projective space over a finite field F, the argument pring is a multivariate polynomial ring defined over (a subfield of) F, and pollist is a list of polynomials in pring. If the space is a projective space, then pollist needs to be a list of homogeneous polynomials. In FinInG there are two types of projective varieties: projective varieties and affine varieties. The following operations apply to both types.

gap> F:=GF(9);
GF(3^2)
gap> r:=PolynomialRing(F,4);
GF(3^2)[x_1,x_2,x_3,x_4]
gap> pg:=PG(3,9);
ProjectiveSpace(3, 9)
gap> f1:=r.1*r.3-r.2^2;
x_1*x_3-x_2^2
gap> f2:=r.4*r.1^2-r.4^3;
x_1^2*x_4-x_4^3
gap> var:=AlgebraicVariety(pg,[f1,f2]);
Projective Variety in ProjectiveSpace(3, 9)
gap> DefiningListOfPolynomials(var);
[ x_1*x_3-x_2^2, x_1^2*x_4-x_4^3 ]
gap> AmbientSpace(var);
ProjectiveSpace(3, 9)



##### 11.1-2 DefiningListOfPolynomials
 ‣ DefiningListOfPolynomials( var ) ( attribute )

Returns: a list of polynomials

The argument var is an algebraic variety. This attribute returns the list of polynomials that was used to define the variety var.

##### 11.1-3 AmbientSpace
 ‣ AmbientSpace( var ) ( attribute )

Returns: an affine or projective space

The argument var is an algebraic variety. This attribute returns the affine or projective space in which the variety var was defined.

##### 11.1-4 PointsOfAlgebraicVariety
 ‣ PointsOfAlgebraicVariety( var ) ( operation )
 ‣ Points( var ) ( operation )

Returns: a list of points

The argument var is an algebraic variety. This operation returns the list of points of the AmbientSpace (11.1-3) of the algebraic variety var whose coordinates satify the DefiningListOfPolynomials (11.1-2) of the algebraic variety var.

gap> F:=GF(9);
GF(3^2)
gap> r:=PolynomialRing(F,4);
GF(3^2)[x_1,x_2,x_3,x_4]
gap> pg:=PG(3,9);
ProjectiveSpace(3, 9)
gap> f1:=r.1*r.3-r.2^2;
x_1*x_3-x_2^2
gap> f2:=r.4*r.1^2-r.4^3;
x_1^2*x_4-x_4^3
gap> var:=AlgebraicVariety(pg,[f1,f2]);
Projective Variety in ProjectiveSpace(3, 9)
gap> points:=Points(var);
<points of Projective Variety in ProjectiveSpace(3, 9)>
gap> Size(points);
28
gap> iter := Iterator(points);
<iterator>
gap> for i in [1..4] do
> 	x := NextIterator(iter);
> 	Display(x);
> od;
[1...]
[1..1]
[1..2]
[111.]



##### 11.1-5 Iterator
 ‣ Iterator( pts ) ( operation )

Returns: an iterator

The argument pts is the set of PointsOfAlgebraicVariety (11.1-4) of an algebraic variety var. This operation returns an iterator for the points of an algebraic variety.

##### 11.1-6 \in
 ‣ \in( x, var ) ( operation )
 ‣ \in( x, pts ) ( operation )

Returns: true or false

The argument x is a point of the AmbientSpace (11.1-3) of an algebraic variety AlgebraicVariety (11.1-1). This operation also works for a point x and the collection pts returned by PointsOfAlgebraicVariety (11.1-4).

#### 11.2 Projective Varieties

A projective variety in FinInG is an algebraic variety in a projective space defined by a list of homogeneous polynomials over a finite field.

##### 11.2-1 ProjectiveVariety
 ‣ ProjectiveVariety( pg, pring, pollist ) ( operation )
 ‣ ProjectiveVariety( pg, pollist ) ( operation )
 ‣ AlgebraicVariety( pg, pring, pollist ) ( operation )
 ‣ AlgebraicVariety( pg, pollist ) ( operation )

Returns: a projective algebraic variety

gap> F:=GF(9);
GF(3^2)
gap> r:=PolynomialRing(F,4);
GF(3^2)[x_1,x_2,x_3,x_4]
gap> pg:=PG(3,9);
ProjectiveSpace(3, 9)
gap> f1:=r.1*r.3-r.2^2;
x_1*x_3-x_2^2
gap> f2:=r.4*r.1^2-r.4^3;
x_1^2*x_4-x_4^3
gap> var:=AlgebraicVariety(pg,[f1,f2]);
Projective Variety in ProjectiveSpace(3, 9)
gap> DefiningListOfPolynomials(var);
[ x_1*x_3-x_2^2, x_1^2*x_4-x_4^3 ]
gap> AmbientSpace(var);
ProjectiveSpace(3, 9)



#### 11.3 Quadrics and Hermitian varieties

Quadrics (QuadraticVariety (11.3-2)) and Hermitian varieties (HermitianVariety (11.3-1)) are projective varieties that have the associated quadratic or hermitian form as an extra attribute installed. Furthermore, we provide a method for PolarSpace taking as an argument a projective algebraic variety.

##### 11.3-1 HermitianVariety
 ‣ HermitianVariety( pg, pring, pol ) ( operation )
 ‣ HermitianVariety( pg, pol ) ( operation )
 ‣ HermitianVariety( n, F ) ( operation )
 ‣ HermitianVariety( n, q ) ( operation )

Returns: a hermitian variety in a projective space

For the first two methods, the argument pg is a projective space, pring is a polynomial ring, and pol is polynomial. For the third and fourth variations, the argument n is an integer, the argument F is a finite field, and the argument q is a prime power. These variations of the operation return the hermitian variety associated to the standard hermitian form in the projective space of dimension $$n$$ over the field $$F$$ of order $$q$$.

gap> F:=GF(25);
GF(5^2)
gap> r:=PolynomialRing(F,3);
GF(5^2)[x_1,x_2,x_3]
gap> x:=IndeterminatesOfPolynomialRing(r);
[ x_1, x_2, x_3 ]
gap> pg:=PG(2,F);
ProjectiveSpace(2, 25)
gap> f:=x^6+x^6+x^6;
x_1^6+x_2^6+x_3^6
gap> hv:=HermitianVariety(pg,f);
Hermitian Variety in ProjectiveSpace(2, 25)
gap> AsSet(List(Lines(pg),l->Size(Filtered(Points(l),x->x in hv))));
[ 1, 6 ]
gap> hv:=HermitianVariety(5,4);
Hermitian Variety in ProjectiveSpace(5, 4)
gap> hps:=PolarSpace(hv);
<polar space in ProjectiveSpace(
5,GF(2^2)): x_1^3+x_2^3+x_3^3+x_4^3+x_5^3+x_6^3=0 >
gap> hf:=SesquilinearForm(hv);
< hermitian form >
gap> PolynomialOfForm(hf);
x_1^3+x_2^3+x_3^3+x_4^3+x_5^3+x_6^3



 ‣ QuadraticVariety( pg, pring, pol ) ( operation )
 ‣ QuadraticVariety( pg, pol ) ( operation )
 ‣ QuadraticVariety( n, F, type ) ( operation )
 ‣ QuadraticVariety( n, q, type ) ( operation )
 ‣ QuadraticVariety( n, F ) ( operation )
 ‣ QuadraticVariety( n, q ) ( operation )

Returns: a quadratic variety in a projective space

In the first two methods, the argument pg is a projective space, pring is a polynomial ring, and pol is a polynomial. The latter four return a standard non-degenerate quadric. The argument n is a projective dimension, F is a field, and q is a prime power that gives just the order of the defining field. If the type is given, then it will return a quadric of a particular type as follows:

 variety standard form characteristic $$p$$ proj. dim. type hyperbolic quadric $$X_0 X_1 + \ldots + X_{n-1}X_n$$ $$p \equiv 3 \pmod{4}$$ or $$p=2$$ odd "hyperbolic", "+", or "1" hyperbolic quadric $$2(X_0 X_1 + \ldots + X_{n-1}X_n)$$ $$p \equiv 1 \pmod{4}$$ odd "hyperbolic", "+", or "1" parabolic quadric X02 + X1 X2 + ... + Xn-1Xn $$p \equiv 1,3 \pmod{8}$$ or $$p=2$$ even "parabolic", "o", or "0" parabolic quadric $$t(X_0^2 + X_1X_2 + \ldots + X_{n-1}X_n)$$, $$t$$ a primitve element of $$\mathrm{GF}(p)$$ $$p \equiv 5,7 \pmod{8}$$ even "parabolic", "o", or "0" elliptic quadric $$X_0^2 + X_1^2 + X_2X_3 + \ldots + X_{n-1}X_n$$ $$p \equiv 3 \pmod{4}$$ odd "elliptic", "-", or "-1" elliptic quadric $$X_0^2 + tX_1^2 + X_2X_3 + \ldots + X_{n-1}X_n$$, $$t$$ a primitive element of $$\mathrm{GF}(p)$$ $$p \equiv 1 \pmod{4}$$ odd "elliptic", "-", or "-1" elliptic quadric $$X_0^2 + X_0X_1 + dX_1^2 + X_2X_3 + \ldots + X_{n-1}X_n$$, $$\mathrm{Tr}(d)=1$$ even odd "elliptic", "-", or "-1"

If no type is given, and only the dimension and field/field order are given, then it is assumed that the dimension is even and the user wants a standard parabolic quadric.

gap> F:=GF(5);
GF(5)
gap> r:=PolynomialRing(F,4);
GF(5)[x_1,x_2,x_3,x_4]
gap> x:=IndeterminatesOfPolynomialRing(r);
[ x_1, x_2, x_3, x_4 ]
gap> pg:=PG(3,F);
ProjectiveSpace(3, 5)
gap> Q:=x*x+x^2;
x_2*x_3+x_4^2
gap> AsSet(List(Planes(pg),z->Size(Filtered(Points(z),x->x in qv))));
[ 1, 6, 11 ]
gap> Display(qf);
Gram Matrix:
. . . .
. . 1 .
. . . .
. . . 1
Polynomial: [ [  x_2*x_3+x_4^2 ] ]
gap> IsDegenerateForm(qf);
#I  Testing degeneracy of the *associated bilinear form*
true
gap> PolarSpace(qv);
<polar space in ProjectiveSpace(3,GF(5)): x_1^2+Z(5)*x_2^2+x_3*x_4=0 >
gap> Display(last);
<polar space of rank 3 over GF(5)>
Gram Matrix:
1 . . .
. 2 . .
. . . 1
. . . .
Polynomial: [ [  x_1^2+Z(5)*x_2^2+x_3*x_4 ] ]
Witt Index: 1
Bilinear form
Gram Matrix:
2 . . .
. 4 . .
. . . 1
. . 1 .
gap> Display(last);
Polynomial: [ Z(5)*x_1*x_2+Z(5)*x_3*x_4 ]



 ‣ QuadraticForm( var ) ( attribute )

When the argument var is a QuadraticVariety (11.3-2), this returns the associated quadratic form.

##### 11.3-4 SesquilinearForm
 ‣ SesquilinearForm( var ) ( attribute )

Returns: a hermitian form

If the argument var is a HermitianVariety (11.3-1), this returns the associated hermitian form.

##### 11.3-5 PolarSpace
 ‣ PolarSpace( var ) ( operation )

the argument var is a projective algebraic variety. When its list of definining polynomial contains exactly one polynomial, depending on its degree, the operation QuadraticFormByPolynomial or HermitianFormByPolynomial is used to compute a quadratic form or a hermitian form. These operations check whether this is possible, and produce an error message if not. If the conversion is possible, then the appropriate polar space is returned.

gap> f := GF(25);
GF(5^2)
gap> r := PolynomialRing(f,4);
GF(5^2)[x_1,x_2,x_3,x_4]
gap> ind := IndeterminatesOfPolynomialRing(r);
[ x_1, x_2, x_3, x_4 ]
gap> eq1 := Sum(List(ind,t->t^2));
x_1^2+x_2^2+x_3^2+x_4^2
gap> var := ProjectiveVariety(PG(3,f),[eq1]);
Projective Variety in ProjectiveSpace(3, 25)
gap> PolarSpace(var);
<polar space in ProjectiveSpace(3,GF(5^2)): x_1^2+x_2^2+x_3^2+x_4^2=0 >
gap> eq2 := Sum(List(ind,t->t^4));
x_1^4+x_2^4+x_3^4+x_4^4
gap> var := ProjectiveVariety(PG(3,f),[eq2]);
Projective Variety in ProjectiveSpace(3, 25)
gap> PolarSpace(var);
Error, <poly> does not generate a Hermitian matrix called from
GramMatrixByPolynomialForHermitianForm( pol, gf, n, vars ) called from
HermitianFormByPolynomial( pol, pring, n ) called from
HermitianFormByPolynomial( eq, r ) called from
<function "unknown">( <arguments> )
called from read-eval loop at line 16 of *stdin*
you can 'quit;' to quit to outer loop, or
you can 'return;' to continue
brk> quit;
gap> eq3 := Sum(List(ind,t->t^6));
x_1^6+x_2^6+x_3^6+x_4^6
gap> var := ProjectiveVariety(PG(3,f),[eq3]);
Projective Variety in ProjectiveSpace(3, 25)
gap> PolarSpace(var);
<polar space in ProjectiveSpace(3,GF(5^2)): x_1^6+x_2^6+x_3^6+x_4^6=0 >



#### 11.4 Affine Varieties

An affine variety in FinInG is an algebraic variety in an affine space defined by a list of polynomials over a finite field.

##### 11.4-1 AffineVariety
 ‣ AffineVariety( ag, pring, pollist ) ( operation )
 ‣ AffineVariety( ag, pollist ) ( operation )
 ‣ AlgebraicVariety( ag, pring, pollist ) ( operation )
 ‣ AlgebraicVariety( ag, pollist ) ( operation )

Returns: an affine algebraic variety

The argument ag is an affine space over a finite field F, the argument pring is a multivariate polynomial ring defined over (a subfield of) F, and pollist is a list of polynomials in pring.

#### 11.5 Geometry maps

A geometry map is a map from a set of elements of a geometry to a set of elements of another geometry, which is not necessarily a geometry morphism. Examples are the SegreMap (11.6-3), the VeroneseMap (11.7-3), and the GrassmannMap (11.8-3).

##### 11.5-1 Source
 ‣ Source( gm ) ( operation )

Returns: the source of a geometry map

The argument gm is a geometry map.

##### 11.5-2 Range
 ‣ Range( gm ) ( operation )

Returns: the range of a geometry map

The argument gm is a geometry map.

##### 11.5-3 ImageElm
 ‣ ImageElm( gm, x ) ( operation )

Returns: the image of an element under a geometry map

The argument gm is a geometry map, the element x is an element of the Source (11.5-1) of the geometry map gm.

##### 11.5-4 ImagesSet
 ‣ ImagesSet( gm, elms ) ( operation )

Returns: the image of a subset of the source under a geometry map

The argument gm is a geometry map, the elements elms is a subset of the Source (11.5-1) of the geometry map gm.

##### 11.5-5 \^
 ‣ \^( x, gm ) ( operation )

Returns: the image of an element of the source under a geometry map

The argument gm is a geometry map, the element x is an element of the Source (11.5-1) of the geometry map gm.

#### 11.6 Segre Varieties

A Segre variety in FinInG is a projective algebraic variety in a projective space over a finite field. The set of points that lie on this variety is the image of the Segre map.

##### 11.6-1 SegreVariety
 ‣ SegreVariety( listofpgs ) ( operation )
 ‣ SegreVariety( listofdims, field ) ( operation )
 ‣ SegreVariety( pg1, pg2 ) ( operation )
 ‣ SegreVariety( d1, d2, field ) ( operation )
 ‣ SegreVariety( d1, d2, q ) ( operation )

Returns: a Segre variety

The argument listofpgs is a list of projective spaces defined over the same finite field, say [PG(n1 -1,q), PG(n2 -1,q), ..., PG(nk -1,q)]. The operation also takes as input the list of dimensions (listofdims) and a finite field field (e.g. [n1, n2, ..., nk,GF(q)]). A Segre variety with only two factors ($$k=2$$), can also be constructed using the operation with two projective spaces pg1 and pg2 as arguments, or with two dimensions d1, d2, and a finite field field(or a prime power q). The operation returns a projective algebraic variety in the projective space of dimension n1 n2 ... nk-1.

##### 11.6-2 PointsOfSegreVariety
 ‣ PointsOfSegreVariety( sv ) ( operation )
 ‣ Points( sv ) ( operation )

Returns: the points of a Segre variety

The argument sv is a Segre variety. This operation returns a set of points of the AmbientSpace (11.1-3) of the Segre variety. This set of points corresponds to the image of the SegreMap (11.6-3).

##### 11.6-3 SegreMap
 ‣ SegreMap( listofpgs ) ( operation )
 ‣ SegreMap( listofdims, field ) ( operation )
 ‣ SegreMap( pg1, pg2 ) ( operation )
 ‣ SegreMap( d1, d2, field ) ( operation )
 ‣ SegreMap( d1, d2, q ) ( operation )
 ‣ SegreMap( sv ) ( operation )

Returns: a geometry map

The argument listofpgs is a list of projective spaces defined over the same finite field, say [PG(n1 -1,q), PG(n2 -1,q), ..., PG(nk -1,q)]. The operation also takes as input the list of dimensions (listofdims) and a finite field field (e.g. [n1, n2, ..., nk,GF(q)]). A Segre map with only two factors ($$k=2$$), can also be constructed using the operation with two projective spaces pg1 and pg2 as arguments, or with two dimensions d1, d2, and a finite field field(or a prime power q). The operation returns a function with domain the product of the point sets of projective spaces in the list [PG(n1 -1,q), PG(n2 -1,q), ..., PG(nk -1,q)] and image the set of points of the Segre variety (PointsOfSegreVariety (11.6-2)) in the projective space of dimension n1 n2 ... nk-1. When a Segre variety sv is given as input, the operation returns the associated Segre map.

gap> sv:=SegreVariety(2,2,9);
Segre Variety in ProjectiveSpace(8, 9)
gap> sm:=SegreMap(sv);
Segre Map of [ <points of ProjectiveSpace(2, 9)>,
<points of ProjectiveSpace(2, 9)> ]
gap> cart1:=Cartesian(Points(PG(2,9)),Points(PG(2,9)));;
gap> im1:=ImagesSet(sm,cart1);;
gap> Span(im1);
ProjectiveSpace(8, 9)
gap> l:=Random(Lines(PG(2,9)));
<a line in ProjectiveSpace(2, 9)>
gap> cart2:=Cartesian(Points(l),Points(PG(2,9)));;
gap> im2:=ImagesSet(sm,cart2);;
gap> Span(im2);
<a proj. 5-space in ProjectiveSpace(8, 9)>
gap> x:=Random(Points(PG(2,9)));
<a point in ProjectiveSpace(2, 9)>
gap> cart3:=Cartesian(Points(PG(2,9)),Points(x));;
gap> im3:=ImagesSet(sm,cart3);;
gap> pi:=Span(im3);
<a plane in ProjectiveSpace(8, 9)>
gap> AsSet(List(Points(pi),y->y in sv));
[ true ]



##### 11.6-4 Source
 ‣ Source( sm ) ( operation )

Returns: the source of a Segre map

The argument sm is a SegreMap (11.6-3). This operation returns the cartesian product of the list consisting of the pointsets of the projective spaces that were used to construct the SegreMap (11.6-3).

#### 11.7 Veronese Varieties

A Veronese variety in FinInG is a projective algebraic variety in a projective space over a finite field. The set of points that lie on this variety is the image of the Veronese map.

##### 11.7-1 VeroneseVariety
 ‣ VeroneseVariety( pg ) ( operation )
 ‣ VeroneseVariety( n-1, field ) ( operation )
 ‣ VeroneseVariety( n-1, q ) ( operation )

Returns: a Veronese variety

The argument pg is a projective space defined over a finite field, say $$PG(n-1,q)$$. The operation also takes as input the dimension and a finite field field (e.g. $$[n-1,q]$$). The operation returns a projective algebraic variety in the projective space of dimension $$(n^2+n)/2-1$$, known as the (quadratic) Veronese variety. It is the image of the map (x0,x1,...,xn)→ (x02,x0x1,...,x0xn,x12,x1x2,...,x1xn,...,xn2)

##### 11.7-2 PointsOfVeroneseVariety
 ‣ PointsOfVeroneseVariety( vv ) ( operation )
 ‣ Points( vv ) ( operation )

Returns: the points of a Veronese variety

The argument vv is a Veronese variety. This operation returns a set of points of the AmbientSpace (11.1-3) of the Veronese variety. This set of points corresponds to the image of the VeroneseMap (11.7-3).

##### 11.7-3 VeroneseMap
 ‣ VeroneseMap( pg ) ( operation )
 ‣ VeroneseMap( n-1, field ) ( operation )
 ‣ VeroneseMap( n-1, q ) ( operation )
 ‣ VeroneseMap( vv ) ( operation )

Returns: a geometry map

The argument pg is a projective space defined over a finite field, say $$PG(n-1,q)$$. The operation also takes as input the dimension and a finite field field (e.g. $$[n-1,q]$$). The operation returns a function with domain the product of the point set of the projective space $$PG(n-1,q)$$ and image the set of points of the Veronese variety (PointsOfVeroneseVariety (11.7-2)) in the projective space of dimension $$(n^2+n)/2-1$$. When a Veronese variety vv is given as input, the operation returns the associated Veronese map.

gap> pg:=PG(2,5);
ProjectiveSpace(2, 5)
gap> vv:=VeroneseVariety(pg);
Veronese Variety in ProjectiveSpace(5, 5)
gap> Size(Points(vv))=Size(Points(pg));
true
gap> vm:=VeroneseMap(vv);
Veronese Map of <points of ProjectiveSpace(2, 5)>
gap> r:=PolynomialRing(GF(5),3);
GF(5)[x_1,x_2,x_3]
gap> f:=r.1^2-r.2*r.3;
x_1^2-x_2*x_3
gap> c:=AlgebraicVariety(pg,r,[f]);
Projective Variety in ProjectiveSpace(2, 5)
gap> pts:=List(Points(c));
[ <a point in ProjectiveSpace(2, 5)>, <a point in ProjectiveSpace(2, 5)>,
<a point in ProjectiveSpace(2, 5)>, <a point in ProjectiveSpace(2, 5)>,
<a point in ProjectiveSpace(2, 5)>, <a point in ProjectiveSpace(2, 5)> ]
gap> Dimension(Span(ImagesSet(vm,pts)));
4



##### 11.7-4 Source
 ‣ Source( vm ) ( operation )

Returns: the source of a Veronese map

The argument vm is a VeroneseMap (11.7-3). This operation returns the pointset of the projective space that was used to construct the VeroneseMap (11.7-3).

#### 11.8 Grassmann Varieties

A Grassmann variety in FinInG is a projective algebraic variety in a projective space over a finite field. The set of points that lie on this variety is the image of the Grassmann map.

##### 11.8-1 GrassmannVariety
 ‣ GrassmannVariety( k, pg ) ( operation )
 ‣ GrassmannVariety( subspaces ) ( operation )
 ‣ GrassmannVariety( k, n, q ) ( operation )

Returns: a Grassmann variety

The argument pg is a projective space defined over a finite field, say $$PG(n,q)$$, and argument k is an integer ($$k$$ at least $$1$$ and at most $$n-2$$) and denotes the projective dimension determining the Grassmann Variety. The operation also takes as input the set subspaces of subspaces of a projective space, or the dimension k, the dimension n and the size q of the finite field ($$k$$ at least $$1$$ and at most $$n-2$$). The operation returns a projective algebraic variety known as the Grassmann variety.

##### 11.8-2 PointsOfGrassmannVariety
 ‣ PointsOfGrassmannVariety( gv ) ( operation )
 ‣ Points( gv ) ( operation )

Returns: the points of a Grassmann variety

The argument gv is a Grassmann variety. This operation returns a set of points of the AmbientSpace (11.1-3) of the Grassmann variety. This set of points corresponds to the image of the GrassmannMap (11.8-3).

##### 11.8-3 GrassmannMap
 ‣ GrassmannMap( k, pg ) ( operation )
 ‣ GrassmannMap( subspaces ) ( operation )
 ‣ GrassmannMap( k, n, q ) ( operation )
 ‣ GrassmannMap( gv ) ( operation )

Returns: a geometry map

The argument pg is a projective space defined over a finite field, say $$PG(n,q)$$, and argument k is an integer ($$k$$ at least $$1$$ and at most $$n-2$$), and denotes the projective dimension determining the Grassmann Variety. The operation also takes as input the set subspaces of subspaces of a projective space, or the dimension k, the dimension n and the size q of the finite field ($$k$$ at least $$1$$ and at most $$n-2$$). The operation returns a function with domain the set of subspaces of dimension $$k$$ in the $$n$$-dimensional projective space over $$GF(q)$$, and image the set of points of the Grassmann variety (PointsOfGrassmannVariety (11.8-2)). When a Grassmann variety gv is given as input, the operation returns the associated Grassmann map.

##### 11.8-4 Source
 ‣ Source( gm ) ( operation )

Returns: the source of a Grassmann map

The argument gm is a GrassmannMap (11.8-3). This operation returns the set of subspaces of the projective space that was used to construct the GrassmannMap (11.8-3).

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