\hfill \thepage} %} \input{tcilatex} \begin{document} \section{Twenty-third International Olympiad, 1982} 1982/1. The function $f(n)$ is defined for all positive integers $n$ and takes on non-negative integer values. Also, for all $m,n$% \[ f(m+n)-f(m)-f(n)=0\text{ or }1 \] \[ f(2)=0,f(3)>0,\text{ and }f(9999)=3333. \] Determine $f(1982).$ 1982/2. A non-isosceles triangle $A_{1}A_{2}A_{3}$ is given with sides $% a_{1},a_{2},a_{3}$ ($a_{i}$ is the side opposite $A_{i}$). For all $% i=1,2,3,M_{i}$ is the midpoint of side $a_{i}$, and $T_{i}$. is the point where the incircle touches side $a_{i}$. Denote by $S_{i}$ the reflection of $T_{i}$ in the interior bisector of angle $A_{i}$. Prove that the lines $% M_{1},S_{1},M_{2}S_{2},$ and $M_{3}S_{3}$ are concurrent. 1982/3. Consider the infinite sequences $\{x_{n}\}$ of positive real numbers with the following properties: \[ x_{0}=1,\text{and for all }i\ge 0,x_{i+1}\le x_{i}. \] (a) Prove that for every such sequence, there is an $n\ge 1$ such that \[ \frac{x_{0}^{2}}{x_{1}}+\frac{x_{1}^{2}}{x_{2}}+\cdots +\frac{x_{n-1}^{2}}{% x_{n}}\ge 3.999. \] (b) Find such a sequence for which \[ \frac{x_{0}^{2}}{x_{1}}+\frac{x_{1}^{2}}{x_{2}}+\cdots +\frac{x_{n-1}^{2}}{% x_{n}}<4. \] 1982/4. Prove that if $n$ is a positive integer such that the equation \[ x^{3}-3xy^{2}+y^{3}=n \] has a solution in integers $(x,y),$ then it has at least three such solutions. Show that the equation has no solutions in integers when $n=2891.$ 1982/5. The diagonals $AC$ and $CE$ of the regular hexagon $ABCDEF$ are divided by the inner points $M$ and $N$, respectively, so that \[ \frac{AM}{AC}=\frac{CN}{CE}=r. \] Determine $r$ if $B,M,$ and $N$ are collinear. 1982/6. Let $S$ be a square with sides of length $100,$ and let $L$ be a path within $S$ which does not meet itself and which is composed of line segments $A_{0}A_{1},A_{1}A_{2},\cdots ,A_{n-1}A_{n}$ with $A_{0}\neq A_{n}$% . Suppose that for every point $P$ of the boundary of $S$ there is a point of $L$ at a distance from $P$ not greater than $1/2.$ Prove that there are two points $X$ and $Y$ in $L$ such that the distance between $X$ and $Y$ is not greater than $1,$ and the length of that part of $L$ which lies between $% X$ and $Y$ is not smaller than $198.$ \end{document}